From the simplest to the most complex, PCBs and integrated circuits can require rework. Reasons for rework include incorrect initial assembly, thermal cycling, failed components or solder bridges, and physical wear or damage. Circuits designed for high-reliability applications like defense or aerospace increasingly use Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) packages. These grid arrays employ non-collapsible solder columns which are mounted to ceramic substrates. Available in a variety of lengths, these solder columns hold up much better in high stress conditions, but they require a specialized approach in rework situations.
Ceramic Column Grid Array (CCGA) and other BGA (ball grid array) rework services should be performed by expert technicians with the right tools, training, and experience. Improper preparation, poor profile development, and risk of collateral heat damage to adjacent solder connections can cause major problems down the line. Other costly mistakes in rework include excessive solder joint voiding and pad damage during the removal process. Fortunately, these are preventable problems that experts know how to avoid.
Found in telecommunications, flight avionics, and other electronic assemblies, CCGA packages have seen significant use in NASA projects, where they are tested in extreme environments and subject to harsh thermal conditions. It has been theorized that rework processes should mirror as much as possible the original manufacturing conditions in order to achieve proper reflow. These packages must maintain the highest reliability for their intended use. Such high-density SMT (surface mount technology) packages are expensive and must be treated with care.
Other IC packages, such as land grid arrays (LGAs), are used for microprocessors such as Intel chips. They have several advantages over BGAs, including the ability to be used in lead-free assemblies and a lower profile for smaller form-factor applications. But like BGAs, they require specific conditions for optimal rework. LGAs are subject to voiding during the reflow process. Special care must be taken in the creation of solder bumps or balls, which can be composed from eutectic, lead-free, or high lead materials. They provide a path between the die and substrate, and play an essential role in thermal conduction.
All of these rework services may be necessary during revisions from one prototype to the next revision, and NPI Services Inc. has the expertise to meet all of your rework needs. Our PCB project teams have a wealth of experience when it comes to BGA, CCGA, LGA and other package rework. Contact NPI Services Inc. today to learn about how our team can restore your PCB or IC to full functionality, or help update your components for a new product revision.
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